The Methods of Nonviolent Action

From Gene Sharp’s From Dictatorship to Democracy:

The Methods of Nonviolent Protest and Persuasion

Formal Statements

Communications with a Wider Audience

Group Representations

Symbolic Public Acts

Pressures on Individuals

Drama and Music


Honoring the Dead

Public Assemblies

Withdrawal and Renunciation

The Methods of Social Noncooperation

Ostracism of Persons

Noncooperation with Social Events, Customs, and Institutions

Withdrawal from the Social System

The Methods of Economic Noncooperation

Economic Boycotts

Action by Consumers

Action by Workers and Producers

Action by Middlemen

Action by Owners and Management

Action by Holders of Financial Resources

Action by Governments

The Strike

Symbolic Strikes

Agricultural Strikes

Strikes by Special Groups

Ordinary Industrial Strikes

Restricted Strikes

Multi-Industry Strikes

Combinations of Strikes and Economic Closures

The Methods of Political Noncooperation

Rejection of Authority

Citizens’ Noncooperation with Government

Citizens’ Alternatives to Obedience

Action by Government Personnel

Domestic Governmental Action

International Governmental Action

The Methods of Nonviolent Intervention

Psychological Intervention

Physical Intervention

Social Intervention

Economic Intervention

Political Intervention